On average, household electricity prices in the European Union of 27 Member States (EU) increased to €21.6 per 100 kWh. This represents a 1.3% increase between the second half of 2018 and the second half of 2019, similar to the overall inflation rate (HICP) over the same period. Across the EU Member States, household electricity prices in the second half of 2019 ranged from €10 per 100 kWh in Bulgaria to around €30 per 100 kWh in Denmark, Belgium and Germany.
Household gas prices increased by 1.7% on average in the EU between the second semester of 2018 and 2019, about 0.4 percentage points more than the overall inflation rate (HICP) over the same period, to €7.2 per 100 kWh. Nevertheless, this is still €0.3 per 100 kWh lower than in the second half of 2013, the peak of gas prices in the last ten years. Among Member States, household gas prices in the second half of 2019 ranged from below €4 per 100 kWh in Romania, Hungary and Latvia to around €9-10 per 100 kWh in Italy, the Netherlands and Spain and almost €12 per 100 kWh in Sweden.
Taxes and levies in the EU made up 41% of the electricity price paid by households in the second half of 2019, and 31% of the gas price.
Highest increase in electricity prices in the Netherlands and Lithuania, largest fall in Denmark
and Greece Across the EU Member States, the highest increase in household electricity prices in national currency between the second half of 2018 and the second half of 2019 was registered in the Netherlands (+19.6%), followed by Lithuania (+14.3%), Czechia (+11.0%) and Romania (+10.1%). Decreases were observed in ten countries, with the largest changes in Denmark (-6.3%) followed by Greece (-5.8%), Portugal (-4.9%) and Bulgaria (-4.7%).
Expressed in euro, average household electricity prices in the second half of 2019 were lowest in Bulgaria (€9.6 per 100 kWh), Hungary (€11.0) and Lithuania (€12.5) and highest in Denmark (€29.2), Germany (€28.7) and Belgium (€28.6). The average electricity price in the EU was €21.6 per 100 kWh.
Expressed in purchasing power standards (PPS), a common reference eliminating general price level differences between countries, it can be seen that the lowest household electricity prices were found in Finland (14.4 PPS per 100 kWh) and Luxembourg (14.6), followed by Malta (15.4), France (17.5), Sweden (17.6), Estonia (18.2), Hungary and the Netherlands (both 18.3). The highest prices expressed in PPS were registered in Romania (27.8), Germany (26.8), Spain (26.2), Portugal (26.0), Belgium (25.9), Czechia (25.5) and Cyprus (25.1).
Half or more of the electricity price is made up of taxes and levies in Denmark and Germany
The share of taxes and levies in total household electricity prices varied significantly between Member States, ranging from two-thirds in Denmark (64%) and over half in Germany (54%) to only 6% in Malta. On average in the EU, taxes and levies accounted for 41% of household electricity prices in the second half of 2019.
Highest increases in gas prices in Spain, Croatia, the Netherlands and France, largest drop in Latvia
Between the second half of 2018 and the second half of 2019, household gas prices in national currency increased in eleven Member States. The highest increases were observed in Spain (+16.7%), followed by Croatia (+12.9%), the Netherlands (+12.1%) and France (+10.0%). In contrast, the largest decreases were recorded in Latvia (-22.0%), Denmark (-15.5%), Greece (-10.2%) and Belgium (-8.3%).
Expressed in euro, average household gas prices in the second half of 2019 were below €5 per 100 kWh in Romania and Hungary (both €3.3 per 100 kWh), Latvia (€3.5), Croatia, Lithuania and Luxembourg (all €4.1), Estonia and Bulgaria (both €4.5), Poland (€4.7) and Slovakia (€4.8). Gas prices above €10 per 100 kWh were recorded in Sweden (€11.7) and Spain (10.2), followed by the Netherlands (€9.7), Italy (€9.3) and France (€8.4).
The average gas price in the EU was €7.2 per 100 kWh.
Adjusted for purchasing power, it can be seen that, relative to the cost of other goods and services, the lowest household gas price was recorded in Luxembourg (3.4 PPS per 100 kWh), ahead of Latvia (5.0), Belgium (5.2), Germany (5.5) as well as Hungary (5.6), Estonia (5.8) and Denmark (5.9). In contrast, the highest prices were observed in Spain (11.2), Sweden (9.9), Italy (9.5), Portugal (9.3) and Bulgaria (9.0).
Highest share of taxes and levies in gas price in Denmark and the Netherlands, lowest in Greece and Luxembourg
In the second half of 2019, taxes and levies made up the largest share of the gas price for households in Denmark (60% of household gas price) and the Netherlands (54%). They were followed by Sweden (43%), Italy (35%), Estonia and Slovenia (both 30%). At the opposite end of the scale, the smallest shares were registered in Greece (8%), Luxembourg (10%), Romania (16%), Slovakia, Bulgaria and Ireland (all 17%). At EU level, taxes and levies accounted on average for nearly one third (31%) of household gas prices in the second half of 2019.
These figures on energy prices in the EU are published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.